The Black Hawk War grew from severe tension between the Mormon settlers and the Native Americans in the Utah Territory. When the settlers arrived in the Utah Territory many drove the wild animals that the Natives hunted into the mountains, and allowed their cattle, horses and sheep to eat the grass, which was a major food source for the Native Americans. The Natives viewed the settlers as the cause for their lose of resources, and often took domesticated livestock in return.
These interactions resulted in violence, with both sides making declarations of war for many reasons, such as protecting their families and avenging the loss of their brethren. The Black Hawk War officially started the day the Civil War ended in 1865. During this war many raids took place, in which many lives were lost, with the majority of fatalities being Native Americans.
At the end of the war in the year 1868, Black Hawk offered a peace treaty to the Mormon settlers, which to some Native Americans was not welcomed, but in the end was accepted by both sides. However, the battles and the raids that took place during the Black Hawk War only made the relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans worse. This treaty seemed to be the first step that was accepted by both sides, which led to the start of the healing process of their relationship. Many saw this treaty as the official ending of the Black Hawk War, while others believed that the war ended when Black Hawk left to go to live in another part of the Utah Territory.